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Weight gain after smoking cessation and risk of major chronic diseases and mortality
journal contributionposted on 30.07.2021, 00:03 by Berhe W Sahle, Wen Chen, Lal RawalLal Rawal, Andre MN Renzaho
Importance: Smoking cessation is frequently followed by weight gain; however, whether weight gain after quitting reduces the health benefits of quitting is unclear. Objective: To examine the association between weight change after smoking cessation and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults aged 18 years or older who were studied between 2006 and 2014. Smoking status and anthropometric measurements were self-reported annually. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) and the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes, cancer, COPD, and mortality. Data were analyzed in January 2019. Exposures: Annual self-reported smoking status; years since quitting. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weight gain after quitting, incident CVD, type 2 diabetes, cancer, COPD, and all-cause mortality. Results: Of a total 16663 participants (8082 men and 8581 women; mean [SD] age, 43.7 [16.3] years), those who quit smoking had greater increases in weight (mean difference [MD], 3.14 kg; 95% CI, 1.39-4.87) and BMI (MD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.21-1.44) than continuing smokers. Compared with continuing smokers, the HRs for death were 0.50 (95% CI, 0.36-0.68) among quitters who lost weight, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.51-0.98) among quitters without weight change, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.21-0.51) among quitters who gained 0.1 to 5.0 kg, 0.24 (95% CI, 0.11-0.53) among quitters who gained 5.1 to 10 kg, and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.16-0.82) among quitters who gained more than 10 kg. The HRs for death were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45-0.83) among quitters who lost BMI, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.51-1.44) among quitters without change in BMI, 0.32 (95% CI, 0.21-0.50) among quitters who gained up to 2 in BMI, and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.16-0.45) among quitters who gained more than 2 in BMI. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that smoking cessation was accompanied by a substantial weight gain; however, this was not associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases or an attenuation of the mortality benefit of cessation.