Validation and factor analysis of the child and youth.pdf (1.58 MB)

Validation and factor analysis of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure for Indigenous Australian boarding school students

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Version 2 2023-10-10, 06:17
Version 1 2021-01-18, 14:13
journal contribution
posted on 2023-10-10, 06:17 authored by Erika Langham, Janya MccalmanJanya Mccalman, Michelle Redman-Maclaren, E Hunter, M Wenitong, Amelia BrittonAmelia Britton, Katrina RutherfordKatrina Rutherford, V Saunders, M Ungar, Roxanne Bainbridge
Introduction: Resilience is a strengths-based construct that is useful for understanding differences in health and wellbeing among youth. There are a range of validated survey instruments available to measure resilience for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter respectfully Indigenous1) youth. However, standard international instruments should only be used if they have been subjected to a rigorous cross-cultural adaptation process and psychometric evaluation in the target population to ensure their validity. The aim of the study was to validate an adapted Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) within a sample of Indigenous Australian boarding school students. Method: The CYRM-28, augmented with an additional 11 site specific items was administered to a purposive sample of Australian Indigenous boarding school students (n = 233) as part of the broader T4S survey instrument that captures demographic information and measures resilience, psychological distress and risk, and service usage. Confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken to verify the relationship between the observed variables with the theoretical constructs of the CYRM-28 and previous findings on the factor structure. Cronbach alpha was also calculated to assess the internal consistency of the CYRM-28 within this sample. Results: Survey data were not a good fit for any previously identified models of the CYRM-28, although the inclusion of a site-specific variable improved the overall fit statistics. Two separate scales were confirmed that capture the sources and expressions of resilience for Indigenous Australian boarding school students. This structure is different to previous findings in relation to the CYRM-28, but consistent with conceptualizations of resilience as a dynamic process.


Category 1 - Australian Competitive Grants (this includes ARC, NHMRC)




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Frontiers Media

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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Peer Reviewed

  • Yes

Open Access

  • Yes

Cultural Warning

This research output may contain the names and images of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people now deceased. We apologize for any distress that may occur.

Acceptance Date


External Author Affiliations

James Cook University, University of Queensland, Apunipima Cape York Health Council, Australian Research Alliance for Children & Youth, Griffith Criminology Institute, Griffith University, Resilience Research Centre, Dalhousie University,

Author Research Institute

  • Centre for Indigenous Health Equity Research

Era Eligible

  • Yes


Frontiers in Public Health