File(s) stored somewhere else
Please note: Linked content is NOT stored on CQUniversity and we can't guarantee its availability, quality, security or accept any liability.
The effect of ethnicity on 2D and 3D frontomaxillary facial angle measurement in the first trimester
journal contributionposted on 28.07.2021, 01:48 by Jennifer AlphonseJennifer Alphonse, Jennifer Cox, Jill Clarke, Philip Schluter, Andrew McLennan
Objectives. To determine the existence and extent of ethnic differences in 2D or 3D fetal frontomaxillary facial angle (FMFA) measurements. Methods. During routine 11–14 weeks nuchal translucency screening undertaken in a private ultrasound practice in Sydney, Australia, 2D images and 3D volumes of the fetal profile were collected from consenting patients. FMFA was measured on a frozen 2D ultrasound image in the appropriate plane and, after a delay of at least 48 hours, was also measured on the reconstructed 3D ultrasound volume offline. Results. Overall 416 patients were included in the study; 220 Caucasian, 108 north Asian, 36 east Asian and 52 south Asian patients. Caucasians had significantly lower median FMFA measurements than Asians in both 2D (2.2∘; < 0.001) and 3D (3.4∘; < 0.001) images. Median 2D measurements were significantly higher than 3D measurements in the Caucasian and south Asian groups ( < 0.001 and = 0.04), but not in north and east Asian groups ( = 0.08 and = 0.41). Conclusions. Significant ethnic variations in both 2D and 3D FMFA measurements exist.These differences may indicate the need to establish ethnic-specific reference ranges for both 2D and 3D imaging.