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The effect of ethnicity on 2D and 3D frontomaxillary facial angle measurement in the first trimester

journal contribution
posted on 28.07.2021, 01:48 by Jennifer AlphonseJennifer Alphonse, Jennifer Cox, Jill Clarke, Philip Schluter, Andrew McLennan
Objectives. To determine the existence and extent of ethnic differences in 2D or 3D fetal frontomaxillary facial angle (FMFA) measurements. Methods. During routine 11–14 weeks nuchal translucency screening undertaken in a private ultrasound practice in Sydney, Australia, 2D images and 3D volumes of the fetal profile were collected from consenting patients. FMFA was measured on a frozen 2D ultrasound image in the appropriate plane and, after a delay of at least 48 hours, was also measured on the reconstructed 3D ultrasound volume offline. Results. Overall 416 patients were included in the study; 220 Caucasian, 108 north Asian, 36 east Asian and 52 south Asian patients. Caucasians had significantly lower median FMFA measurements than Asians in both 2D (2.2∘; < 0.001) and 3D (3.4∘; < 0.001) images. Median 2D measurements were significantly higher than 3D measurements in the Caucasian and south Asian groups ( < 0.001 and = 0.04), but not in north and east Asian groups ( = 0.08 and = 0.41). Conclusions. Significant ethnic variations in both 2D and 3D FMFA measurements exist.These differences may indicate the need to establish ethnic-specific reference ranges for both 2D and 3D imaging.

History

Volume

2013

Start Page

1

End Page

5

Number of Pages

5

eISSN

1687-9597

ISSN

1687-9589

Location

United States

Publisher

Hindawi Limited

Publisher License

CC BY

Additional Rights

CC BY 3.0

Language

en

Peer Reviewed

Yes

Open Access

Yes

Acceptance Date

30/08/2013

External Author Affiliations

The University of Sydney; The University of Canterbury, NZ; Sydney Ultrasound for Women, NSW

Era Eligible

Yes

Medium

Print-Electronic

Journal

Obstetrics and Gynecology International

Article Number

847293