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Review of flowering control in industrial hemp
Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) is a dioecious annual that commences its reproductive cycle when photoperiods are shorter than a critical length. Photoperiod-sensitive varieties grown in low latitudes with short-day lengths tend to produce early flowering, short plants affecting the yield and quality of the fiber. The photoperiodic sensitivity of the crop could be controlled by the activation or deactivation of genes triggered by the change in light duration perceived by photoreceptive pigments. The sexual dimorphism of Cannabisis genetically determined by the XY chromosomal mechanismal though sexual morphology is primarily a result of endogenous plant growth regulator levels that fluctuate in response to environmental variables. Occurrence of occasional hermaphroditic flowers and monoecious plants are probably the result of these fluctuations. Understanding the mechanisms of photoperiodicity and sexual inheritance contributes to advances in breeding and crop management that may underpin the expansion of the commercial cultivation of the crop in nontraditional agroecological domains.