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Non-bovine species and the risk to effective control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in cattle
journal contributionposted on 16.02.2022, 02:56 authored by Caitlin EvansCaitlin Evans, Michael P Reichel
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important and highly prevalent virus of domestic cattle. Infections with BVDV may lead to both, reproductive and immunological effects that can result in widespread calf losses and increased susceptibility to diseases, such as mastitis and respiratory disease. While BVDV is generally considered to be host specific, it and other Pestivirus species, such as Border disease virus (BDV) in sheep, have been shown to be infecting species other than those from which they were originally isolated from. Recently BVDV was placed on the OIE’s list of notifiable disease and control and eradication programmes for BVDV have been developed throughout much of Europe, the United States, and the United Kingdom. While some countries, including Sweden and Ireland have successfully implemented eradication programmes, other countries such as New Zealand and Australia are still in the early stages of BVDV control. Despite effective control methods, incursions of BVDV into previously cleared herds still occur. While the cause of these incursions is often due to lapses in control methods, the ability of ruminant pestiviruses to infect species other than cattle poses the question as to whether non-bovine species could be impeding the success of BVDV eradication and control. As such, the aim of this review is to make mention of what is known about the cross-species transmission of BVDV, BDV and other pestiviruses between cattle and non-bovine ungulate species and draw conclusions as to the risk non-bovine species pose to the successful control and eradication of BVDV from cattle.