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Measures of circadian preference in childhood and adolescence : a review
journal contributionposted on 2017-12-06, 00:00 authored by L Tonetti, A Adan, Vitale Di MiliaVitale Di Milia, C Randler, V Natale
Purpose: To review the psychometric properties of the questionnaires commonly filled in by children and adolescents to measure circadian preference. Methods: We examined the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (MEQ-CA), the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM). We critically analyzed the reliability, in term of internal consistency (through the Cronbach’s alpha) and test-retest reliability (through the correlation coefficient), and the type of validation against external criteria (objective assessment of the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, hormones and other questionnaires). Fifty studies that reported these data were included in the review: 7 studies used the MEQ-CA, 28 used the MESC and 15 used the CSM. Results: The percentage of studies reporting at least acceptable levels of internal consistency was high and similar between the three questionnaires. Evidence for test-retest reliability was scant, since only3 studies were available; it was at least acceptable for the MESC (two studies with a time interval of 1 month), not acceptable for the MEQ-CA (one study with a time interval of 6 months), while no information was available for the CSM. As regards the validation evidence, the MEQ-CA has been validated by the highest number of external criteria actigraphy, oral body temperature and other questionnaires), followed by the CSM (cortisol sampling and other questionnaires). The MESC has been validated only against self-report measures. Conclusions: The present state of the art would suggest the use of the MEQ-CA to assess circadian preference in children and adolescents.
Number of Pages7
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External Author AffiliationsInstitute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (Barcelona, Spain); School of Business and Law (2013- ); TBA Research Institute; Universitat de Barcelona; University of Education (Heidelberg, Germany); Università di Bologna;