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High fat diet and associated changes in the expression of micro-RNAs in tissue: Lessons learned from animal studies
journal contributionposted on 19.08.2019, 00:00 by RA Wilson, William DeasyWilliam Deasy, A Hayes, MB Cooke
Environment and genetic factors play an important role in the development of obesity, and diet is one of the main contributing factors to this disease. High fat intake is associated with body weight gain, leading to obesity and other metabolic diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, noncoding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Studies have shown that high fat intake, independent of body weight status, can significantly impact both negatively and positively the expression of miRNAs and thus the biological function of tissues such as adipose, skeletal, and cardiac muscle, liver, neuronal, and endothelial. This review will summarize the effects of high calorie diet in the form of high fat intake on miRNA expression in various tissues of animal models and of high fat fed offspring. We will also briefly review the impact of different dietary lipids on miRNA expression. Given changes in miRNA expression have been associated with the development of many diseases including obesity, understanding their biological role could have important clinical implications and offer tangible therapeutic targets for the prevention, management, and/or treatment of obesity and other lifestyle‐related disorders.