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Global knowledge gaps in the prevention and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus
journal contributionposted on 17.05.2022, 02:49 authored by Caitlin EvansCaitlin Evans, Beate Pinior, Magdalena Larska, David Graham, Matthias Schweizer, Christian Guidarini, Nicola Decaro, Julia Ridpath, M Carolyn Gates
The significant economic impacts of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus have prompted many countries worldwide to embark on regional or national BVD eradication programmes. Unlike other infectious diseases, BVD control is highly feasible in cattle production systems because the pathogenesis is well understood and there are effective tools to break the disease transmission cycle at the farm and industry levels. Coordinated control approaches typically involve directly testing populations for virus or serological screening of cattle herds to identify those with recent exposure to BVD, testing individual animals within affected herds to identify and eliminate persistently infected (PI) cattle, and implementing biosecurity measures such as double-fencing shared farm boundaries, vaccinating susceptible breeding cattle, improving visitor and equipment hygiene practices, and maintaining closed herds to prevent further disease transmission. As highlighted by the recent DISCONTOOLS review conducted by a panel of internationally recognized experts, knowledge gaps in the control measures are primarily centred around the practical application of existing tools rather than the need for creation of new tools. Further research is required to: (a) determine the most cost effective and socially acceptable means of applying BVD control measures in different cattle production systems; (b) identify the most effective ways to build widespread support for implementing BVD control measures from the bottom-up through farmer engagement and from the top-down through national policy; and (c) to develop strategies to prevent the reintroduction of BVD into disease-free regions by managing the risks associated with the movements of animals, personnel and equipment. Stronger collaboration between epidemiologists, economists and social scientists will be essential for progressing efforts to eradicate BVD from more countries worldwide.