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From incomer to insider: The development of the TRANSPEC model – A systematic review of the factors influencing the effective rapid and early career TRANsition to a nursing SPECiality in differing contexts of practice
journal contributionposted on 2019-10-15, 00:00 authored by Desley Hegney, D Chamberlain, Clare HarveyClare Harvey, Agnieszka SobolewskaAgnieszka Sobolewska, Bruce KnightBruce Knight, A Garrahy
Objective Shortages in the speciality nursing workforce, both nationally and internationally are driving the need for the development of an evidence-based model to inform recruitment and retention into speciality nursing practice. This study aimed to identify the factors influencing rapid and early career transition into speciality nursing practice. Methods A comprehensive systematic review of the literature was undertaken using a convergent qualitative synthesis design where results from qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies were transformed into qualitative findings. Databases included CINAHL, Medline, Scopus and PsycINFO. Search terms were: nurse, early career, rapid career, transition, specialty, and Medical Subject Heading terms included: professional development and educational, nursing, and continuing. Using validated tools, papers were independently assessed by a minimum of two reviewers. Results Twenty-three research articles were included. There were no randomized control trials. Through thematic analysis and matrix mapping of the results, the TRANSPEC model was developed. The model outlines three phases of transition: pre-entry, incomer and insider. There has been little focus on pre-entry with programs being designed at the incomer and insider phases. Impacting on these phases are three concepts: the self (professional and personal), the transition processes (informal and formal) and a sense of belonging. The overarching theme influencing the phases and concepts is the context of practice. Enablers and inhibitors influence successful transition and therefore impact on recruitment and retention. Each nurse’s transition is influenced by time. Conclusions For successful transition, the enablers and inhibitors impacting on the three concepts, phases and the context of practice need to be considered when developing any program. It is apparent that while previous studies have focused on the transition processes, such as curricula, the development of the self and a sense of belonging are also essential to successful transition. Further studies should include the pre-entry phase. © 2019 Hegney et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.