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Entrepreneurship needs and achievement motivations of descendant Latin-Japanese entrepreneurs in Japan
journal contributionposted on 06.12.2017, 00:00 authored by Khondaker RahmanKhondaker Rahman, Sheikh RahmanSheikh Rahman
Deriving ideas from McClelland (1955, 1961, 1965, 1981) and Murray (1938, 1943) on the achievement, power, affiliation, security, and status needs of potential entrepreneurs, this research examines entrepreneurship needs and achievement motivations of the Latin American descent entrepreneurs operating businesses in central Japan. These entrepreneurs had migrated to Japan from Latin American countries with the aim of earning quick money in the high-wage Japanese labour market. After a few years working in factory jobs, they started to establish and manage small-scale business enterprises. This phenomenon signaled a profound shift in their mindset, their role and status in society. The factors affecting this significant shift in the history of entrepreneurship in Japan, however, remained an unexplored research question. This research makes an effort to show some light on this development. Research methods used include a questionnaire survey, interviews, and field-visits to pinpoint their various needs, opportunities, and motives behind leaving factory jobs and becoming business entrepreneurs/owners. Findings suggest that these entrepreneurs had responded to various overt and covert attributes of n Ach (achievement needs), n Pow (power needs), n Aff (affiliation needs), n Sec (security needs), and n Sta (status needs), which have motivated them to leave factory jobs to promote and manage business activities and to achieve success in these ventures. They usually do perform well at jobs and adapt to numerous challenges. They have also gained access to government agencies and resources, and information networks. They have worked hard to create a positive impression among people and in the community and kept harmonious relationships, while avoiding conflicts. They have managed to own secured and protected businesses in the right locations and fields. These strategies have gained them business success and made them more achievement oriented, power and affiliation seeking, status loving, and security concerned. This research is the first one of its kind on the needs and motivations of foreign entrepreneurs in Japan, and its implications lie in the fact that the findings would provide vital hints to the government and local agencies, volunteer organizations and activists, and migrant entrepreneurs to perceive needs and goals, make strategic plans and programs to help them achieve those, and make migrant entrepreneurships successful agents in economic and social partnerships in Japan. The questionnaire developed for this research can be further improved with scaling of items to pinpoint their significance on the n Ach and other needs of the entrepreneurs and can be used in Japan and other countries to address needs of entrepreneurs from different national groups.