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Do multi-ingredient protein supplements augment resistance training-induced gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength? A systematic review and meta-analysis of 35 trials

journal contribution
posted on 08.06.2020, 00:00 authored by KR O'Bryan, Thomas DoeringThomas Doering, RW Morton, VG Coffey, SM Phillips, GR Cox
Objective: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation. Data sources: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. Eligibility criteria: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement. Design: Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength. Subgroup analyses compared the efficacy of MIP supplementation relative to training status and chronological age. Results: The most common MIP supplements included protein with creatine (n=17) or vitamin D (n=10). Data from 35 trials with 1387 participants showed significant (p<0.05) increases in FFM (0.80 kg (95% CI 0.44 to 1.15)), 1RM lower body (4.22 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 7.64)) and 1RM upper body (2.56 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 4.33)) where a supplement was compared with all non-MIP supplemented conditions (means (95% CI)). Subgroup analyses indicated a greater effect of MIP supplements compared with all non-MIP supplements on FFM in untrained (0.95 kg (95% CI 0.51 to 1.39), p<0.0001) and older participants (0.77 kg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.43), p=0.02); taking MIP supplements was also associated with gains in 1RM upper body (1.56 kg (95% CI 0.80 to 2.33), p=0.01) in older adults. Summary/conclusions: When MIP supplements were combined with resistance exercise training, there were greater gains in FFM and strength in healthy adults than in counterparts who were supplemented with non-MIP. MIP supplements were not superior when directly compared with PRO supplements. The magnitude of effect of MIP supplements was greater (in absolute values) in untrained and elderly individuals undertaking RT than it was in trained individuals and in younger people. Trial registration number: CRD42017081970. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

History

Volume

54

Issue

10

Start Page

573

End Page

581

Number of Pages

9

eISSN

1473-0480

ISSN

0306-3674

Publisher

BMJ

Peer Reviewed

Yes

Open Access

No

Acceptance Date

08/02/2019

External Author Affiliations

Bond University; McMaster University, Canada

Era Eligible

Yes

Journal

British Journal of Sports Medicine