Development and feasibility testing of a training programme for community pharmacists to deliver a culturally responsive medication review intervention.pdf (1.76 MB)

Development and feasibility testing of a training programme for community pharmacists to deliver a culturally responsive medication review intervention

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Version 2 2022-08-30, 04:03
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journal contribution
posted on 2022-08-30, 04:03 authored by Amanda J Wheeler, Jie Hu, Santosh K Tadakamadla, Kerry Hall, Adrian MillerAdrian Miller, Fiona Kelly
Background: Cultural differences between health professionals and Indigenous peoples contribute to health inequalities, and effective cross-cultural communication and person-centred healthcare are critical remedial elements. Community pharmacists can play a significant role by reducing medication-related problems through medication reviews, yet barriers to access include cultural and linguistic challenges. The Indigenous Medication Review Service (IMeRSe) aimed to address these barriers via a culturally responsive intervention. The aim of this paper is to present the cross-cultural training framework developed as a component of this intervention and the feasibility evaluation of the first stage of the training framework. Methods: A training framework was developed, emphasising pharmacists’ skills and confidence in effective cross-cultural communication and relationship-building with Indigenous Australians (Please note that the use of the term ‘Indigenous’ in this manuscript includes all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and acknowledges their rich traditions and heterogenous cultures) across three stages: (1) online and workshop-based, covering Indigenous history and health, cross-cultural communication and a holistic, strengths-based approach to intervention delivery; (2) orientation to local Aboriginal Health Services, community and cultural protocols; and (3) ongoing mentoring. The feasibility evaluation of the first stage included the following: self-reported levels of cultural capability, cultural confidence and skills, motivators and barriers to working with Indigenous Australians, assessed pre- and post-training. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires including a 22-item validated Cultural Capability Measurement Tool. Paired t tests assessed change in mean scores of Likert scale data. Results: Stage 1 development resulted in an 8.5-h standardised cross-cultural training programme tested with 39 pharmacists working across urban and rural/remote Australia. Thirty-six pharmacists completed the feasibility evaluation (75.7% female, all non-Indigenous, 75.7% never attended prior cross-cultural training). Participants reported overall acceptability with training; the majority perceived it added value to their practice. Improved cultural capability post-training was reflected in increased scores for 21/22 items, nine reaching statistical significance. There were significant improvements for all 26 confidence and skills statements, and selected motivational and barrier statements, particularly participants role in improving Indigenous health outcomes and cross-cultural communication. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence that the training programme was feasible to deliver and prepared pharmacists to deliver a culturally responsive medication review intervention. The online knowledge-based modules and face-to-face workshops provide a standardised framework for larger-scale implementation of the intervention training. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618000188235.Prospectively registered 22 January 2018.


Category 1 - Australian Competitive Grants (this includes ARC, NHMRC)






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CC BY 4.0



Peer Reviewed

  • Yes

Open Access

  • Yes

Cultural Warning

This research output may contain the images, voices or names of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander or First Nations people now deceased. We apologize for any distress that may occur.

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External Author Affiliations

Griffith University

Author Research Institute

  • Jawun Research Centre

Era Eligible

  • Yes


Pilot and Feasibility Studies

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