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Basketball players possess a higher bone mineral density than matched non-athletes, swimming, soccer, and volleyball athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
journal contributionposted on 07.10.2020, 00:00 by E Stojanović, D Radovanović, Vincent Dalbo, V Jakovljević, N Ponorac, RR Agostinete, Z Svoboda, Aaron Scanlan
Summary: Basketball athletes possess a higher bone mineral density (BMD) than matched non-athletes and swimming, soccer, and volleyball athletes. Differences appear to be exacerbated with continued training and competition beyond adolescence. The greater BMD in basketball athletes compared to non-athletes, swimming, and soccer athletes is more pronounced in males than females. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine differences in total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) between basketball athletes, non-athletes, and athletes competing in swimming, soccer, and volleyball, considering age and sex. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched. Included studies consisted of basketball players and at least one group of non-athletes, swimming, soccer, or volleyball athletes. BMD data were meta-analyzed. Cohen’s d effect sizes [95% confidence intervals (CI)] were interpreted as: trivial ≤ 0.20, small = 0.20–0.59, moderate = 0.60–1.19, large = 1.20–1.99, and very large ≥ 2.00. Results: Basketball athletes exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher BMD compared to non-athletes (small-moderate effect in total-body: d = 1.06, CI 0.55, 1.56; spine: d = 0.67, CI 0.40, 0.93; lumbar spine: d = 0.96, CI 0.57, 1.35; upper limbs: d = 0.70, CI 0.29, 1.10; lower limbs: d = 1.14, CI 0.60, 1.68; pelvis: d = 1.16, CI 0.05, 2.26; trunk: d = 1.00, CI 0.65, 1.35; and femoral neck: d = 0.57, CI 0.16, 0.99), swimming athletes (moderate-very large effect in total-body: d = 1.33, CI 0.59, 2.08; spine: d = 1.04, CI 0.60, 1.48; upper limbs: d = 1.19, CI 0.16, 2.22; lower limbs: d = 2.76, CI 1.45, 4.06; pelvis d = 1.72, CI 0.63, 2.81; and trunk: d = 1.61, CI 1.19, 2.04), soccer athletes (small effect in total-body: d = 0.58, CI 0.18, 0.97), and volleyball athletes (small effect in total-body: d = 0.32, CI 0.00, 0.65; and pelvis: d = 0.48, CI 0.07, 0.88). Differences in total and regional BMD between groups increased with age and appeared greater in males than in females. Conclusion: Basketball athletes exhibit a greater BMD compared to non-athletes, as well as athletes involved in swimming, soccer, and volleyball. © 2020, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.