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A systematic review of behavioral outcomes for leadership interventions among health professionals
journal contributionposted on 01.09.2021, 03:42 by Michelle L Cleary, Rachel Kornhaber, Deependra K Thapa, Sancia West, Denis Visentin
Background Healthcare requires effective leadership to improve patient outcomes, manage change, and achieve organizational goals. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate interventions aimed at improving leadership behavior in health professionals. Methods A systematic literature review of key databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Scopus) was performed in September 2018. Data were extracted and synthesized. Results Thirty-three articles from 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. Self-reported leadership behavior showed a significant postprogram improvement. Objective observations were more likely to show improved leadership behavior than subjective observations. Face-to-face delivery of leadership development was more effective than online delivery. Interventions incorporating the elements of personal development planning, self-directed learning, workplace-based learning, and reflection were more likely to develop leadership behavior. Conclusions/Implications for Practice Leadership interventions had a beneficial effect on the leadership behaviors of participants based on both subjective and objective changes in behavior. In addition to focusing on individual skill development, interventions that aim to develop leadership should consider the organizational, social, cultural, and political contexts in which behavioral change is expected. Workplace-based learning should be included in program development.