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A review of dynamics modelling of friction draft gear
Longer and heavier trains mean larger in-train forces and more complicated force patterns. Practical experience indicates that the development of fatigue failure of coupling systems in long heavy trainsmaydiffer from conventional understanding.The friction-type draft gears are the most widely used draft gears. The ever developing heavy haul transport environment requires further or new understanding of friction draft gear behaviour and its implications for train dynamics as well as fatigue damage of rolling stock. However, modelling of friction draft gears is a highly nonlinear question. Especially the poor predictability, repeatability and the discontinuity of friction make this task more challenging. This article reviews current techniques in dynamics modelling of friction draft gears to provide a starting point that can be used to improve existing or develop new models to achieve more accurate force amplitude and pattern predictions.