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A consideration of antibacterial agent efficacies in the treatment and prevention of formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm
journal contributionposted on 14.01.2020, 00:00 by Z Sedarat, Andrew Taylor-RobinsonAndrew Taylor-Robinson
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium found frequently on a person’s skin and sometimes in their upper respiratory tract. Although regarded primarily as a commensal of the human microbiota S. aureus shows the ability to become an opportunistic pathogen. Hence, it is a common cause of skin and lung infections and of food poisoning. S. aureus forms biofilms, complex communities of bacteria inside an exopolysaccharide matrix, which adhere to different surfaces, including those associated with hospital-acquired infections such as catheters, shunts and other implanted medical devices. In this instance, the presence of proteins adsorbed to the surface of the biomaterial provides a nutrient source for bacterial growth. Due to antimicrobial resistance, use of longstanding antibiotics alone is increasingly an ineffective therapeutic intervention for biofilm-related infections. Therefore, a growing concern is the treatment of medical devices in order to prevent antibiotic resistance associated with routine handling of these items in a healthcare setting. Consequently, several different biotechnological approaches have targeted a practical solution to S. aureus biofilm formation. These include novel antibiotics administered alone or combined with other compounds, application of natural products like enzymes and antimicrobial peptides, and harnessing of nanoparticles and phage therapy. This brief article provides an overview of each of these cutting-edge methods aimed at inhibition of S. aureus biofilms. Development of an effective agent to prevent and treat biofilm formation would represent a significant step forward for infection control of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and other antibiotic-resistant strains that provides a major global public health challenge.