Institutionalisation and resistance: Organic agriculture in Australia and New Zealand
The expansion of the organics industry in Australia and New Zealand is premised upon the continued institutionalisation of what was once considered to be a marginal 'unscientific' approach to farming. What is emerging is the integration of organic practices within conventional food systems - something that many commentators would not have predicted, but which appears to fit well with theories of 'greening'. With growth in the number and influence of organic certification (and other regulatory) bodies, and the evolution of profitable international markets, commercial growers as well as transnational companies have entered the industry. As a consequence of seemingly entrenched philosophical and other differences there has been a growing rift in Australia and New Zealand between the 'new' commercially-focused organic producers, and the more orthodox organic producers whose practices continue to be based upon a rejection of scientific agriculture. Many within the latter group have devised sites of resistance which form the basis for ongoing contestation between their own attitudes and practices, and those of the 'new' growers.